I'm not sure what to list the budget at since all the supplies were given to me by my mother-in-law!
Here's a how-to for pictures 1 and 5.
If I do a how-to for 3 + 4 I will have to do it as an entirely new project, since the technique is different and quite extensive.
I'll start with a how-to on a cross between pendants #1 and #5.
*flat, round stone bead (or square for #1) [These are stones/beads that were given to me so I don't know what they're called, where to find them, or how to make them]
1. Cut a length of wire about 8" long and straighten it (Hold one end with the flat-nose pliers with one hand, squeeze the wire between a piece of fabric in the other and pull through several times to get the kinks out.)
With the round-nose pliers make a loop on one end.
Hold the loop with the flat-nose pliers and pull the wire around to begin a spiral. Continue to desired size. (Here I'm making a spiral like the pendant in #1, but you could also make a square shape instead, like in #5.)
This is where the quality of your tools makes a difference. I'm using cheap, wal-mart jewelry pliers that have a manufacturing error (a raised bit of metal on one side) that keeps leaving dents in my work!
Make a 90-degree bend on the wire with the flat-nose pliers. String the wire through the bead. Leave a couple of mm of wire between the stone and the bend.
Bend the spiral up and onto the stone (you can use the flat-nose again to make the initial 90-degrees, but I recommend doing the rest by hand).
Here I realize that 8" was too much, 5-6 would've been fine.
Next we make the top loop.
Make a 90-degree bend (with the flat-nose) where you want the base of the loop (I think I made this one too high, I don't like it, but I'll continue anyway.)
Hold the bend with your round-nose pliers and wrap the wire around the top.
Continue holding with round-nose pliers and wrap the wire tightly around the stem.
When you get to the stone cut off the excess wire and carefully squeeze in the remaining stub (I recommend using the flat-nose pliers).
For Picture #2:
I don't have any more stones like #2 to demonstrate with. It was an experiment and I'm not entirely sure how I did it.
This stone had a hole going through front-to-back, so it was different. I believe I started with the loose spiral/loop on the front, strung the wire through the hole, made the loop and wrapped the wire back down over the stem & stone down to the hole.